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Articles & Book Chapters

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  • “Geopolitical Shifts: Asia rising, America declining in the Middle East?” Contemporary Arab Affairs 6, 3 (July 2013), 458-66.
  • “Asia’s Rise and America’s Decline in the Middle East,” working paper and seminar discussion, Al-Mustaqbil al-‘Arabi (Beirut),  Number 414 (August 2013, 106-30.  (Arabic)
  • “Conclusion: After the ‘Arab Spring’: Emergent Democracy vs. Resurgent Authoritarianism,” Ch. 12 in Noureddine Jebnoun, Mehrdad Kia, and Mimi Kirk (eds.),  Modern Middle East Authoritarianism: Roots, Ramifications and Crisis.  London and New York: Routledge, 2014, pp. 242-55.
  • “US Middle East Policy and the Arab Spring.” In The Arab Spring: Will it Lead to Democratic Transitions?, edited by Clement Henry and Jang Ji-Hyang, 231-240. Seoul: The Asan Institute for Policy Studies, 2012.
  • “Awakening, Cataclysm, or Just a Series of Events?  Reflections on the Current Wave of Protest in the Arab World.” In The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings: End of an Old Order?, edited by Bassam Haddad, Rosie Bsheer and Ziad Abu-Rish, 17-27. London: Pluto Press, 2012. (Original available on Jadaliyya here)
  • “The Middle East in Flux.” Current History 110:740 (December 2011): 364-369.
  • “The United States in the Middle East.” In International Relations of the Middle East, 2nd edition, edited by Louise Fawcett, 308-330. Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
  • “The Incremental Approach to Reform in the Gulf.” In The Arabian Gulf: Between Conservatism and Change, 45-62. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, 2009.  In English and Arabic. Arabic Edition is entitled al-khalij al-‘arabi: bayn al-muhafadha wa-l-taghiir.
  • “America’s ‘Palestine Fatigue’.” In Transformed Landscapes: Essays on Palestine and the Middle East in Honor of Walid Khalidi, edited by Camille Mansour and Leila Fawaz, chapter 15 (20 pp). Cairo, New York: American University in Cairo Press, 2009.
  • “Advice to President Obama: U.S. Policy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: What Should and Can the Next President Do?”  Middle East Policy 15, 4 (Winter 2008), 140-45.
  • “The Gulf Engulfed: Confronting Globalization American Style.” In Globalization and the Gulf, edited by John W. Fox, Nada Mourtada-Sabbah, and Mohammed al-Mutawa, 148-162. London & New York: Routledge, 2006.
  • “Washington vs. Al-Jazeera: Competing Constructions of Middle East Realities.” Transnational Broadcasting Studies 14 (2005): 121-42. [Earlier website version available here.]
  • “The United States in the Middle East.” In International Relations of the Middle East, edited by Louise Fawcett, 283-306Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • “Can Middle East Political Reform Survive the American Embrace?” contribution to “Evaluating the Bush Menu for Change in the Middle East,” Middle East Policy, 12:1 (Spring 2005): 110-14.
  • “American Hegemony and the Changing Terrain of Middle East International Politics.” In Persistent Permeability: Regionalism, Localism, and Globalization in the Middle East, edited by Bassel Salloukh and Rex Brynen, 163-180.  Aldershot (UK) & Burlington VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004.
  • “Policies of Pax Americana in Iraq and the Middle East.” In The Occupation of Iraq: Arab, Regional, and International Aspects, 65-81. Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 2004.  (In Arabic.)
  • “Pax Americana in the Middle East: Promises and Pitfalls.” In Regime Change in Iraq: The Transatlantic and Regional Dimensions, edited by Christian-Peter Hanelt, Giacomo Luciani and Felix Neugart. Fiesole, Italy: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, 2004.
  • “Political Scenarios for Iraq After the Occupation.” Al-Mustaqbal Al-‘Arabi (Arabic Quarterly, Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies), December 2003.  Also reprinted in Iraq: Invasion, Occupation, Resistance, (Beirut, Center for Arab Unity Studies, 2003; in Arabic).  Also reprinted in Iraq and the Region After the War: Issues in Social and Economic Reconstruction. Proceedings of a conference organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia.  (Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 2004; in Arabic).
  • “Rebuilding Iraq: Prospects for Freedom and Democracy.” Panel presentation at the Cato Institute conference on Rebuilding Iraq. Summary of remarks in CATO Policy Report XXV:5 (September/October 2003).
  • “Is a Two-State Solution Still Viable?” Co-authored with Stephen P. Cohen, Nathan Guttman, and Khalil E. Jahshan. Middle East Policy 10:2 (Summer 2003): 1-26.
  • “The Abdullah Peace Plan: Offer or Ultimatum?” Transcript of remarks for symposium organized by the Middle East Policy Council on Capitol Hill. Middle East Policy 9:3 (September 2002).
  • “Whither Political Islam? Information Technologies, Societies in Crisis and the American Challenge.” In Islam and Information-Telecommunication Technology, proceedings of a conference at Waseda University, Tokyo, October 2002. (In Japanese.)
  • “Information Technology, International Politics and Political Change in the Arab World.” Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies (Amman, Jordan) 4:2 (Autumn/Winter 2002).
  • “Imperial Headaches: Managing Unruly Regions in an Age of Globalization.” Middle East Policy 9:4 (December 2002): 61-74.  An Arabic version was published in the journal Al-Mustaqbal al-Arabi (Beirut, November 2002).
  • “Area Studies and the Discipline: The Middle East.” PS: Political Science and Politics, 34: 4 (December 2001): 801-804.
  • “Policy Critique: A Response to Navigating Through Turbulence: America and the Middle East in a New Century, report of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.” Middle East Policy, 8:2 (June 2001): 116-120.
  • “Creative Destruction: Information Technology and the Political Culture Revolution in the Arab World.” (Revision of paper delivered in Amman, Jordan, June 2001.) Working Papers on New Media and Information Technology in the Middle East (NMIT), Georgetown University and the Arab Information Project. Available here.
  • “Memorandum to the Next President on US Middle East Policy.” Middle East Insight, November-December 2000.
  • “Comment: the Overriding Issue in the Middle East.” Pharoah’s Magazine (Cairo), January 2000.
  • “A ‘Pan-Arab Virtual Think Tank’: Enriching the Arab Information Environment.” Middle East Journal 54:3 (Summer 2000): 362-77.
  • “PLO.” World Book Encyclopedia, May 2000.
  • “From Consociationalism to the Public Sphere: Recent Evidence from Lebanon.” In Ethnic Conflict and International Politics in the Middle East, edited by Leonard Binder, chapter 5. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999.
  • “Lebanon After Ta’if: Another Reform Opportunity Lost?” Arab Studies Quarterly 21:1 (Winter 1999): 27-40.
  • “The Historical Evolution of US Involvement in the Middle East,” and “The US and the Middle East: The Policymaking Process.” In The United States and Canada: Political Systems, Policy-Making and the Middle East. Jerusalem: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, 1998.
  • “The United States and the Middle East.” In World Security: Challenges for a New Century, 3rd edition, edited by Michael T. Klare and Yogesh Chandrani, chapter 7. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
  • “Should U.S. Military Assistance to Israel be Reduced or Eliminated?” The CQ (Congressional Quarterly) Researcher 8 (March 1998): 209.
  • “Palestinians and Lebanon: The Common Story.” Journal of Refugee Studies 10:3 (1997): 243-60.
  • “The Evolution of U.S. Policy toward Yemen: Seeking Stability in Arabia.” In Yemen Today: Crisis and Solutions, edited by E.G.H. Joffé, M.J. Hachemi, and E.W. Watkins, 164-177. London: Caravel, 1997.
  • “Trying Again: Power-Sharing in Post-Civil War Lebanon.” International Negotiation 2:1 (1997), 103-22.
  • “Obstacles to Democratization in the Middle East.” Contention, 5:2 (Winter 1996): 81-105. With comments by four scholars and a rejoinder.
  • “To Play the Hegemon: Fifty Years of US Policy Toward the Middle East.” Middle East Journal, 50:3 (Summer 1996): 329-43.
  • “What Happened to Arab Unity?” Paper prepared for an ongoing collective project on regional integration in the Arab world, June 1996.
  • The Yemeni War of 1994: Causes and Consequences. Contributor. Edited by Jamal S. al-Suwaidi. London: Saqi Books, 1995.
  • “The Political Culture Approach to Arab Democratization: The Case for Bringing It Back In, Carefully.” In Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World; Volume 1: Theoretical Perspectives, edited by Rex Brynen, Bahgat Korany and Paul Noble, 61-76. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1995.
  • “Interventions in Lebanon: The Domestic Context and Perspectives.” In International Organizations and Ethnic Conflict, edited by Milton J. Esman and Shibley Telhami, 126-147. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.
  • “Democracy and Foreign Policy in the Arab World.” In Democracy, War, and Peace in the Middle East, edited by David Garnham and Mark Tessler, 195-222. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
  • “Transformations in the Middle East Regional System: The Dialectics of Inclusion and Exclusion.” Iranian Journal of International Affairs 7:3 (Fall 1995): 561-75.
  • “Unhappy Yemen: Witness to the Slide Toward War,” and “Bipolarity, Rational Action, and War in Yemen,” reprints of previously published articles, in Al-tahawilat al-siyassia fi-l Yemen [Political Changes in Yemen], edited by Abdo Hamoud Al-Sharif, 181-209. Sana’a: American Institute of Yemeni Studies, 1995.
  • “Arab Regimes and Democratization: Responses to the Challenge of Political Islam.” In The Islamist Dilemma, edited by Laura Guazzone, 217-246. London: Ithaca Press, 1995. Also published in Italian as Il Dilemma del l’Islam, Rome: Franco Angeli, 1995.
  • “El asesinato de Rabin y el Proceso de Paz: nuevos retos para la politica norteamericana hacia Oriente Medio” [“The Rabin Assassination and the Peace Process: New Challenges for U.S. Policy”], Meridiano CERI (Madrid) 6 (November 1995): 4-8.  Published also in Arabic as “Tahdidat jadida li-l-siyassa al-amirkiyya fi-l-sharq al-awsat,” Al-Hayat (London), November 24, 1995.
  • “The Future of Jerusalem After the Israel-PLO Agreement.” In Research Papers of the International Symposium on Al-Quds and its Cultural Heritage, 715-726. Rabat: Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1995.
  • “Arab Regimes and Democratization: Responses to the Challenge of Political Islam.” In The Islamist Dilemma: The Political Role of Islamist Movements in the Contemporary Arab World, edited by Laura Guazzone. Reading, Berkshire: Ithaca Press, 1995. Also published in The International Spectator (Istituto Affari Internazionali, Rome), 29:4 (October-December 1994).
  • “[Unhappy Yemen]: Watching the Slide Toward Civil War.” Middle East Insight 10:4/5 (May/August 1994): 10-19.
  • “International Organization Interventions in Lebanon: The Domestic Context and Perspectives.” In International Organizations and Ethnic Conflict, edited by Milton Esman and Shibley Telhami. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
  • “Lebanon’s American Connection in the New World Order.” In Peace for Lebanon? From War to Reconstruction, edited by Deirdre Collings, 137-148. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1994.
  • “The Clinton Administration and the Middle East: Squandering an Inheritance?” Current History 93:580 (February 1994): 49-55.
  • “Rethinking Political Culture Explanations of Arab Authoritarianism and Democratization.” In Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Theoretical Perspectives, edited by Bahgat Korany, Paul Noble, and Rex Brynen. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995.
  • “Problems and Trends in Contemporary Arab Leadership,” Oriente Moderno (Rome) 12:73 (1993): 39-55.
  • “The Clinton Administration in the Middle East: An Interim Assessment.” Brown Journal of World Affairs, (November 1993: 87-96.
  • “Simulating Middle East Politics on the Internet.” Arab Studies Journal 1:2 (Fall 1993): 21 ff.
  • “Lebanon.” In The Encyclopedia of Democracy, edited by Seymour Martin Lipset. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.
  • “Democracy and Foreign Policy in the Arab World.” The Beirut Review, 2:4 (Fall 1992): 3-28.  Also in Democracy, War, and Peace in the Middle East, edited by David Garnham and Mark Tessler. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995. Arabic version published in Majallat al-arabiyya lil-dirasat al-duwaliyya [The Arab Journal for International Studies], 4:1-2 (Winter-Spring 1993): 5-25.
  • “Democratization Trends in the Middle East: Implications for U.S. Policy.” Statement before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East, hearing on “The Middle East: The Search for Peace,” August 11, 1992, 18 pp. typescript.
  • “The Middle East Under Pax Americana: How New, How Orderly?” Third World Quarterly,13:2 (Summer 1992): 301-16.
  • “Dealing With Islamic Renewal: Some Rules of Engagement.” Statement before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Africa, hearing on “Implications for U.S. Policy of Islamic Fundamentalism in Africa,” May 20, 1992; 7 pp. typescript.
  • “Washington’s Intervention in the Gulf.” In Crisis in the Gulf: Background and Consequences, edited by Ibrahim Ibrahim, 61-75. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, 1992.
  • “Boutros Boutros-Ghali,” “Yasser Arafat,” “Palestine Liberation Organization,” and “Arab League,” World Book Encyclopedia (1992).
  • “After the Gulf War: Prospects for Democratization in the Arab World.” Middle East Journal, 45:3 (Summer 1991): 407-26.
  • “The Middle East After the Gulf War: Problems and Prospects.” Statement before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, May 23, 1991; 15 pp. typescript.
  • “The Possibilities for Pluralism.” American-Arab Affairs 36 (March 1991): 3.
  • “The Transformation of Jerusalem, 1917-1987.” In Jerusalem in History, edited by K.J. Asali, 249-277. Brooklyn, NY: Oliver Branch Press, 1990. Arabic version, Al-Quds fi-l-tarikh published by the Jordan University Press, Amman, 1992.
  • Crisis in the Persian Gulf: Political Causes and Oil Market Effects, co-authored with Bernard J. Picchi. New York: Saloman Brothers, 1990, 35 pp.
  • “U.S. Options in the Gulf Crisis: The Need for a Diplomatic Solution.” Statement before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, hearing on “U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf,” December 3, 1990; 11 pp. typescript.
  • “The United States’ Involvement in Lebanon.” In Toward a Viable Lebanon, edited by Halim Barakat, 210-231. London: Croom Helm, 1988.
  • “Democratization and the Problem of Legitimacy in Middle East Politics.” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 22:2 (December 1988): 157-171. Based on Presidential Address, MESA Annual Meeting, 1987.
  • “The Problem of Authoritative Power in Lebanese Politics: Why Consociationalism Failed.” In Lebanon: A History of Conflict and Consensus, edited by Nadim Shehadi and Dana Haffar Mills, 224-239. London: I.B. Tauris, 1988.
  • “State, Society, and Legitimacy: A Study in Arab Political Possibilities in the 1990s.” In The Next Arab Decade, edited by Hisham Sharabi, 22-37. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.  Arabic version, Al-‘aqd al-‘arabi al-qadim: al-mustaqbilat al-badila, published by The Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 1986.
  • “From Lebanon to ‘Irangate’: A Review of Recent American Middle East Policy,” Maghreb-Machrek Monde Arabe (Paris) 117 (July-September 1987).  Expanded version published in CCAS Reports (Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, September 1987).
  • “Superpower Policies in Lebanon: Realities and Possibilities.” Journal of Arab Affairs 6:1 (1987): 3pp.
  • “The Conflicts of the Middle East: Their Importance for Americans.” American-Arab Affairs, 18 (Fall 1986): 57-62.
  • “Public Opinion, Foreign Policy, and the Crisis of Legitimacy in Arab Politics.” Journal of Arab Affairs 5:2 (Fall 1986): 131-60.
  • “United States Policy in the Middle East: Opportunities and Dangers.” Current History 85:508 (February 1986): 49-52ff.
  • “Lebanon,” “Divided Lebanon: Major Factions and Groups,” and “Nabih Berri,” Collier’s Encyclopedia Year Book, 1986.
  • “The Breakdown of Democracy in Lebanon.” Journal of International Affairs 38: 2 (Winter 1985): 277-292.
  • “The Palestinians After Lebanon.” Current History 84: 498 (January 1985): 16-20ff.
  • “Letter from Beirut.” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin,18: 1 (July 1984): 1-2.
  • “The Islamic Factor in Iraqi and Syrian Politics,” In Islam in the Political Process, edited by James P. Piscatori, 73-97. London: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  • “The Palestinians After Lebanon.” Current History 82:480 (January 1983): 5-9 ff.
  • “Reagan’s Policy in Northeast Africa.” Africa Report, 27: 2 (March-April 1982): 4-10.
  • “Social Mobilization Theory and Arab Politics.” In From National Development to Global Community: Essays in Honor of Karl W. Deutsch, edited by Richard L. Merritt and Bruce M. Russett, 46-69. London: Allen and Unwin, 1981.
  • “Islam and Political Development,” In Islam and Development, edited by John L. Esposito, 1-24. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1980.
  • “The Scars of Occupation: An Eye-Witness Report.” Journal of Palestine Studies, 9:2 (Winter 1980): 32-49.
  • “The Palestinians: Retrospect and Prospects.” Current History 78:453 (January 1980): 22-24 ff.
  • “The Palestinian Factor in the Lebanese Civil War.” Middle East Journal 32:3 (Summer 1978): 261-78.
  • “The Ethnoreligious Dimension of the Lebanese Civil War.” Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 1: 3 (Spring 1978): 34-45.
  • “The Precarious Republic Revisited: Reflections on the Collapse of Pluralist Politics in Lebanon.” Contemporary Arab Studies, Occasional Paper No. 2 (Georgetown University Center for Contemporary Arab Studies), February 1977; 31 pp.
  • “The Middle East Regional System.” In World Politics, edited by James Rosenau, Kenneth Thompson, and Gavin Boyd, 466-500. New York: The Free Press, 1976.
  • “The Lebanese Crisis: The Limits of Consociational Democracy.” Journal of Palestine Studies, 5: 3/4 (Spring-Summer 1976): 109-22.
  • “Domestic Politics and American Policy in the Arab-Israeli Conflict,” Politique Etrangère (Paris), 39: 6 (December 1974), 641-58.
  • “Data Problems in Quantitative Comparative Analysis.” Comparative Politics, 5: 4 (July 1973), 611-30. (Review article.)
  • “Indicators of Administrative Productivity: The Cross-National Perspective.” Philippine Journal of Public Administration 17:3 (July 1973): 330-33.
  • “The Political Situation in the Arab World and Its Implications for American Interests.” Statement before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, hearing on “Energy and Foreign Policy,” May 31, 1974 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974), pp. 99-117.
  • “Political Protest and Power Transfers in Crisis Periods: A Preliminary Test of Three Hypotheses.” Comparative Political Studies 4:3 (October 1971): 259-94.  Reprinted in Politische Systemkrisen, edited by M. Jänicke, (Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1973), pp. 201-35.
  • “Research Facilities in Lebanon.” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, 6:3 (October 1972): 17-25.
  • “Developments and Setbacks in the Palestinian Resistance Movement 1967-1971.” Journal of Palestine Studies 1:3 (Spring 1972): 64-84.
  • “The Art of the Possible in the Arab-Israeli Crisis.” The Yale Law Journal 81:6 (May 1972): 1243-60. (Review article.)
  • “Conditions of Political Violence and Instability: A Preliminary Test of Three Hypotheses.” Sage Professional Papers 1:01-005, (1971): 243-94.
  • “The Middle East Crisis, with Particular Reference to Lebanon and Jordan.” Statement to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on the Middle East, hearing on “The Middle East, 1971: The Need to Strengthen the Peace,” October 5, 1971, (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971), pp. 293-98.
  • “Fedayeen are Forcing Lebanon’s Hand.” Mid East 10:1 (February 1970): 7-14.
  • “The Palestinian Arab Resistance Movement: Its Significance in the Middle East Crisis.” Middle East Journal, 23: 3 (Summer 1969): 291-307.
  • “Democracy and Social Mobilization in Lebanon.” Comparative Politics 1: 2 (January 1969): 245-263.
  • America and the Middle East. Report of a conference held at Yale University, co-authored with Willard G. Oxtoby. New Haven: New Haven Committee on the Middle East Crisis, 1968.  
  • “Jerusalem: A City Still Divided.” Mid East 8:4 (September 1968): 20-25.
  • “A Case of Political Underdevelopment,” Journal of Politics, 29:4 (November 1967): 821-37.
  • “The Electoral Process and Political Development in Lebanon.” Middle East Journal, 20: 2 (Spring 1966): 173-86.
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